Mechanism of sublingual immunotheropy method

     The modern theory of the hyposensitization mechanism at local specific treatment by allergensis based on a number of factors. Epithelium and subepitheliallymphoid tissue of respiratory tract is the first barrier to penetration of ekzoallergens to the patient’s body. The natural human immunity to allergic inflammation depends on their normal reactivity. When respiratory allergosis (rhinitis and asthma), mucosal permeability to the penetration of allergens due to local dysimmunityis sharply increased; while immunity must provide the local protection of the airways.

     It was proved that immunity depends on the local immunogenesis, which is implemented through the immunoglobulin of various classes that found in the secretions of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. Immunocompetent cells of paratracheal lymph nodes, migrating into the submucous tissue of respiratory, emit the secretory immunoglobulin IgA. This class differs from other classes of immunoglobulins,it has the ability to be fixed firmly on the ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. This forms a protective coating that prevents the penetration of ekzoallergens through the epithelial barrier, as well as promotes sensitization and exacerbation of allergic inflammation. As opposed to subcutaneous treatment, the secretory IgA is actively involved in the immune response during the allergen application directly to the mucous membrane of “shock organ”.

     Application of the subbukalmethod in immunotherapy leads to the fact that for a long time an allergen comes in contact with a large surface of OropharynxValdeyerovo ring (palatine and pharyngeal tonsils, pharynx side bolsters, numerous granules of the mucous membranes of the mouth), which is connected through lymphatic vessels with a system of cervical lymph nodes, submandibular area and the trachea. If an allergen is swallowed with the saliva, lymphatic system of digestive tract - Peyer's patches, etc. is also involved in the immunological process. This greatly increases the effectiveness of treatment, compared with subcutaneous and other methods of allergen administration. Getting further into the blood the allergen involves overall immune system with T-and B-lymphocytes into immune process. There are formed the lymphocyte clones of immunological memory, which prepare the patient for effective protective immunological response.

     Thus, application of the allergen to the mucous membranes of the mouth and respiratory tract stimulates both local and general immunity.

     This technique is theoretically substantiated, proven experimentally and clinically tested on thousands of patients, with using double-blind placebo of controlled method and it is recommended for practical use in hospitals.

      Therefore, the introduction into the patient’s organism, for the purpose of sensitization the allergen leads to the following changes:

1. Formation of blocking antibodies of class G, which bind IgE;

2. Increase in the concentration of secretory - protective mucosal immunoglobulin of class A;

3. Decrease inflammation cell effects in blood (eosinophils, basophils and mast cells in the tissue);

4. Activation of phagocytic function of macrophages and neutrophils;

5. Stimulation of adrenal functions and increasingthe concentrations of cortisol in blood;

6. Switching the response of blood cells to the allergen from Th-2 stimulation to Th-1 stimulation that inhibits the release of allergic mediators (histamine, leukotrienes, etc.)

    All of the above leads to a decrease in sensitization and improving immunity, i.e. clinical recovery.